Description, Origin and The Efficacy of Crown Flower
Widuri or Biduri is known by the Latin name Calotropis gigantea. Also known as Crown Flower or Giant Milk Weed in English.
This plant also has other names which are quite diverse according to the local language in Indonesia. Such as Rubik in the Aceh region, Biduri, Rembega, and Remingu (in Malay family region) Rumbigo in the Minangkabau area, Widuri in the Sunda area, Biduri, Saduri, Sidoguri, and Widuri in Central and East Java, Bidhuri in Madura. As well as Maduri in Bali, Muduri, Rembiga, Kore, Krokoh, Kolonsusu, Modo Kapauk, and Modo Kampauk in Nusa Tenggara, and Rambega Sulawesi (Munir).
This plant is known to originate from Southeast Asian regions such as Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand and South Asian regions such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and China.
Growth and Shape Description
Crown flower is a herbaceous plant with a height that can reach up to 4 meters. The stems are erect, branched, cylindrical, dense and contain a milky white sap. Crown flower leaves are single leaves, facing each other, oval in shape with a blunt tip and notched base, and flat leaf edges. The leaves are whitish green, measuring 8 to 30 cm long and 4 to 15 cm wide. The leaves also have short stalks and pinnate bones. The upper surface of the leaves is thick haired when young and gradually disappears when old.
It’s flowers are compound with an umbrella shape that grows at the ends of branches (terminals) or in the axils of leaves. Long flower stalks (3-5 cm) with stretched petals and egg-shaped spurs, downy, and green in color, and have narrow protective leaves. The stamens form a tube and the stigma is wide, pentagonal. The flower crown is egg-shaped, white or purplish white with a diameter of 4 to 4.5 cm.
Crown flower’s fruit has an elongated oval shape resembling a roof with a hook-shaped tip and is green in color. The fruit is 9 to 10 cm long. The seeds are small, oval, flat, brown, short haired and thick. The seeds have tufts of long silk-like hairs, so they can be blown away by the wind. Thistles can be propagated by seeds.
Uses and Efficacy of Crown Flower
In many cultures and traditions this plant is known to have many uses and medicinal properties. Among them is to help treat various disorders related to the central nervous system, skin diseases, digestive system, respiratory system and reproductive system.
Indigenous people make this plant a part of their lives by using the fruit fiber to make rope, household tools and to weave clothes. While the flowers are used to decorate wreaths.
Most of the uses of crwon flower have also been validated by scientific studies such as for analgesic, anti-rheumatic, anti-asthmatic, anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-pyretic, central nervous system disorders, contraception, anti-ulcer and wound healing (Kadiyala). . In addition, other studies such as anti-diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-worm, anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, cardiac protective studies, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, fibrinolytic, mosquitoes, neuromuscular activity, vasodilation and skeletal muscle activity were also reported against the use of this plant.
Kadiyala, Madhuri et al. “Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae): a phytochemical and pharmacological review.” Journal of ethnopharmacology vol. 150,1 (2013): 32-50. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.045
Munir, Ali. “Biduri Atau Widuri (Calotropis Gigantea) Yang Terabai.” Alamendah’s Blog, 22 Oct. 2014, alamendah.org/2014/10/22/biduri-atau-widuri-calotropis-gigantea-yang-terabai. Accessed 1 Jan. 2023.